those suffer from loss of respiration or circulation function in an accident, such as drowning, traffic accident, lightning strike, electric shock, gas poisoning, meditation poisoning, or injury after tumble, other than those with cardiopulmonary failure; once the victim stops her/his respiration or heartbeat, first aid shall be provided at the earliest time.
keep oxygenating the victim’s brain cells for their survival rather than taking revival as the only goal.
help the drowned out of water, check her/his consciousness (Pat him on the shoulder and ask what the matter is.)
If the drowned is confirmed to have lost consciousness, seek for help. (Help! Please call 119, and call ambulance).
|Code||English||Procedures||Main Points of the Action|
|A||Airway Opened||1. Check consciousness－pat shoulder and shout "help"
2. Keep airway free－press forehead and lift chin
|(a) Clear mouth (b) Press forehead and lift chin.|
|B||Respiration||1.Check respiration－stay, watch and listen
2. Give two breaths gently (E.A.R.)
If no respiration, give two breaths.
|C||Circulation||1.Check pulse－check neck pulse
2.Press chest－press 15 times (E.C.C.)
|(a) if with pulse, perform artificial respiration.
(b) If no pulse, perform CPR.
keep laps open to the width of shoulders, kneeling between the right side of head and chest of the victim.
Keep rescuing till the victim has respiration or pulse, or the professional supporters have reached.
If the drowned has revived, keep her/him lying on the side and cover fully her/his body with towel to keep her/him warm.
Send the victim for definitive therapy after the supporters arrive, Keep observation for at least 48 hours, be careful of Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that may be caused by aspiration pneumonia, any carelessness may be deadly.
You see a middle-aged man lying on the road side when you are going out to a restaurant with your family, here, you should.......
pat the victim on the shoulder to check if she/he has consciousness.
Ask for help:
if there is no response from the victim, call 119 (Tell 119 about your phone number, accidental scene, correct site, situation and number of the victim)
Open respiration for the victim:
press the forehead and lift the chin to open the victim’s respiration.
check in 3 to 5 seconds to confirm if the victim has respiration in the following ways:
Watch: if the chest expands.
Listen: if there is breathing.
Feel: if the is exhale of air from mouth and nose.
Reviving position if the victim has breathing:
keep the victim in reviving position and airway free, observe carefully the breathing and heartbeat of the victim before the ambulance arrives.
But....if the victim has no breathing
If no breathing: give two breaths to the victim to
(1) Keep his head elevated with position of free airway, pinch the victim’s nose firmly with thumb and index finger.
(2) Reviver takes a deep breath and places his mouth firmly over the mouth of the victim, give two breaths at the rate of 1/1.5-2sceond.
(3) Press the forehead and lift the chin again to open the victim’s airway if there is resistance or chest without expansion when blowing, if the air is still unable to force in, check if there is any foreign body in the airway, then perform Heimlich maneuver.
place your middle finger and index finger to the upper part of throat and slide outward for a length of a finger, and press gently for about 5 to 10 seconds on the next concave to feel the pulse, if there is pulse, continue the next step of artificial respiration (Step 8), if no pulse, perform chest massage.
give a breath every 5 second, blow 1.5 to 2 second each time and blow 10 to 12 times a minute. Check again the breathing of the victim: check the breathing of the victim every several minutes, if there is still no breathing and pulse, perform CPR.
(1)The rate for chest compression is 100/minute.
(2) Keep compressing 15 times followed by 2 artificial respirations.
Check it again: repeat 15:2 CPR 4 times and check again the pulse of the victim, thereafter make a check for each minute.
Locate the correct position for chest massage: put together your index finger and middle finger and slide them up along the side of the victim's rib to the heart place between rib and breastbone.
Place your middle finger on above the heart place, with index finger rest on middle finger and kept immobile.
Place the heel of the other palm firmly to the index finger, with the palm heel kept in the central line of the breastbone.
Move the middle finger of the other hand away after the palm heel is located, put both hands together with fingers raised to prevent fracture of the rib by compression.