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First Aid with CPR

Who to be revived with CPR:

those suffer from loss of respiration or circulation function in an accident, such as drowning, traffic accident, lightning strike, electric shock, gas poisoning, meditation poisoning, or injury after tumble, other than those with cardiopulmonary failure; once the victim stops her/his respiration or heartbeat, first aid shall be provided at the earliest time.

Goals of CPR:

keep oxygenating the victim’s brain cells for their survival rather than taking revival as the only goal.

First aid procedures for drowning:

help the drowned out of water, check her/his consciousness (Pat him on the shoulder and ask what the matter is.)

If the drowned is confirmed to have lost consciousness, seek for help. (Help! Please call 119, and call ambulance).

Then perform first aid with CPR.

First Aid with CPR

CPR Practice Table

Code English Procedures Main Points of the Action
A Airway Opened 1. Check consciousness-pat shoulder and shout "help"
2. Keep airway free-press forehead and lift chin
(a) Clear mouth (b) Press forehead and lift chin.
B Respiration 1.Check respiration-stay, watch and listen
2. Give two breaths gently (E.A.R.)
(b) Listen
(c) Feel
If no respiration, give two breaths.
C Circulation 1.Check pulse-check neck pulse
2.Press chest-press 15 times (E.C.C.)
(a) if with pulse, perform artificial respiration.
(b) If no pulse, perform CPR.

Position of the rescuer:

keep laps open to the width of shoulders, kneeling between the right side of head and chest of the victim.

Keep rescuing till the victim has respiration or pulse, or the professional supporters have reached.

If the drowned has revived, keep her/him lying on the side and cover fully her/his body with towel to keep her/him warm.

Send the victim for definitive therapy after the supporters arrive, Keep observation for at least 48 hours, be careful of Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that may be caused by aspiration pneumonia, any carelessness may be deadly.

Practice procedures for Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

  • Check the consciousness of the drowned after helping him out of water. (Pat him on the shoulder and ask what the matter is.)
  • If the drowned is confirmed to have lost consciousness, seek for help. (Help! Please call 119, and call ambulance).
  • Keep the drowned lying on hard ground.

Keep airway free

  • (press forehead with one hand and lift the chin with thumb and index finger of the other hand forming a V shape).
  • See if the chest expands or not, place ear close to the mouth and nose of the victim to hear if there is any breath, and feel if there is exhale with cheek, try this for 5 seconds, if the victim shows no respiration, move the hand on the forehead to pinch the nose of the drowned and open her/his mouth, give two breaths by mouth-to-mouth and see and the chest of the drowned expands or not.
  • Locate the throat in the center of neck with index finger and middle finger, and slide down to 1.5 to 2 cm and press gently to feel if there is still pulse. If there is no pulse, press the chest by sliding your index finger and middle finger up to the lower part of the breastbone along the rib, going up at a width of two fingers, with the heel of the other hand placed close to the first hand and lapped on its heel, elbow kept straight, and shoulders right above the chest of the drowned, then press the chest with the weight of your upper body for about 4~5 minutes (for adult), and count 1, 2, 3…11…15, with a scale of 2:15 comparing to mouth-to-mouth blow; perform four rounds and check again if there is pulse or not, if it is necessary to keep the rescue till the victim has respiration or pulse or the professional supporters arrive before sending the victim to hospital for treatment, be careful of the possibility of pneumonia or death.

One-person CPR

  • Locate the correction compression position (on the chest 11/2 to 2 inch right between the nibble).
  • Pump the chest 15 times at the rate of 100/minute. (compress down to 4-5 cm) Give two long and gentle breaths, for adult, each blow keeps 1.5 to 2 seconds.
  • The reviver shall turn to watch and listen between two breaths, and compress chest directly after finishing the second blow, no turning to watch and listen is needed.
  • When compressing again, place your hand on the correct position again, and relocate the correct compression position if it can not be reset, then compress the chest 15 times at the rate of 100/minutes.
  • Give two more breaths after each session of compression as a circle for 15 minutes, perform 4 circles per minutes.

Two-person CPR

  • When performing two-person CPR, one person stays by the head of the victim to keep her/his airway free, the other compresses the victim’s chest on the other side. The scale between chest compression and artificial respiration for two-person CPR is 15:2, with compression suspended with blowing.
  • Use hand for artificial respiration to check the pulse and breathing of the victim to evaluate the effectiveness of chest compression and decide if the victim has regained her/his natural blood circulation and respiratory function when performing artificial respiration. To check if the chest compression works, use your hands to compress the chest to observe the victim’s chest, listening to her/his breathing and check her/his pulse....

You see a middle-aged man lying on the road side when you are going out to a restaurant with your family, here, you should.......

First Aid with CPR

Step 1

Check consciousness:
pat the victim on the shoulder to check if she/he has consciousness.

First Aid with CPR

Step 2

Ask for help:
if there is no response from the victim, call 119 (Tell 119 about your phone number, accidental scene, correct site, situation and number of the victim)

First Aid with CPR

Step 3

Open respiration for the victim:
press the forehead and lift the chin to open the victim’s respiration.

First Aid with CPR

Step 4

Check respiration:
check in 3 to 5 seconds to confirm if the victim has respiration in the following ways:
Watch: if the chest expands.
Listen: if there is breathing.
Feel: if the is exhale of air from mouth and nose.

First Aid with CPR

Step 5

Reviving position if the victim has breathing:
keep the victim in reviving position and airway free, observe carefully the breathing and heartbeat of the victim before the ambulance arrives.

But....if the victim has no breathing

First Aid with CPR

If no breathing: give two breaths to the victim to

(1) Keep his head elevated with position of free airway, pinch the victim’s nose firmly with thumb and index finger.

(2) Reviver takes a deep breath and places his mouth firmly over the mouth of the victim, give two breaths at the rate of 1/1.5-2sceond.

(3) Press the forehead and lift the chin again to open the victim’s airway if there is resistance or chest without expansion when blowing, if the air is still unable to force in, check if there is any foreign body in the airway, then perform Heimlich maneuver.

Check pulse:

place your middle finger and index finger to the upper part of throat and slide outward for a length of a finger, and press gently for about 5 to 10 seconds on the next concave to feel the pulse, if there is pulse, continue the next step of artificial respiration (Step 8), if no pulse, perform chest massage.

Perform artificial chest:

give a breath every 5 second, blow 1.5 to 2 second each time and blow 10 to 12 times a minute. Check again the breathing of the victim: check the breathing of the victim every several minutes, if there is still no breathing and pulse, perform CPR.

(1)The rate for chest compression is 100/minute.

(2) Keep compressing 15 times followed by 2 artificial respirations.

Check it again: repeat 15:2 CPR 4 times and check again the pulse of the victim, thereafter make a check for each minute.

  • If no pulse, keep performing CPR.
  • If with pulse, check breathing.
  • If no breathing, perform artificial respiration.
  • If with breathing, keep reviving position.

Locate the correct position for chest massage: put together your index finger and middle finger and slide them up along the side of the victim's rib to the heart place between rib and breastbone.

Place your middle finger on above the heart place, with index finger rest on middle finger and kept immobile.

Place the heel of the other palm firmly to the index finger, with the palm heel kept in the central line of the breastbone.

Move the middle finger of the other hand away after the palm heel is located, put both hands together with fingers raised to prevent fracture of the rib by compression.

  • Rescuer kneels by the victim, with legs open to the width of the shoulder.
  • Keep your shoulder right above the breastbone of the victim, with arms and elbow joint straight.
  • Compress the breastbone with your body weight.
  • Compress a weight of 36-45 kg or down 4-5 cm for each compression.
  • Do not move your hands when releasing the pressure.